[Tex/LaTex] What are the available “documentclass” types and their uses


Some of the available classes of documents in LaTeX are well known and widely used, such as the article and beamer classes, while others are not so well known, such as the standalone class.

I found this figure (edit: transcribed)

article for articles in scientific journals, presentations, short reports, program documentation, invitations, …
proc a class for proceedings based on the article class.
minimal is as small as it can get. It only sets a page size and a base font. It is mainly used for debugging purposes.
report for longer reports containing several chapters, small books, thesis, …
book for real books
slides for slides. The class uses big sans serif letters.
memoir for changing sensibly the output of the document. It is based on the book class, but you can create any kind of document with it (1)
letter For writing letters.
beamer For writing presentations (see LaTeX/Presentations).

which lists the main classes and is a good starting point, but the description is too short and still leaves one wondering when it would be more suitable to choose one class over the other and what the characteristics of each class is. Furthermore, the list is not exhaustive I think, given that I know at least one more document class that is not there (the standalone class, as I mentioned).

So my question is: what are the available classes of documents in LaTeX, and could you provide a brief description of the class and the situations where it would be recommended?

Please give only one class per answer.

Best Answer

New working link: Al­ter­na­tive LaTeX class(es)

Original answer:

There's a category in the TeX Catalogue: Alternative Document Classes (web archive link).