I had a similar issue with a widetext environment overlapping an equation environment, I solve it using `\begin{align}...\end{align}`

instead of `\begin{equation}...\end{equation}`

for the overlapped equation, in your case try

```
\begin{align}
E(b)&=\int\limits_{-\infty}^{\infty}\varphi_2^*(x)\left(-\frac{1}{2}\frac{d^2}{dx^2}+x^{2p}\right)\varphi_2(x)\ dx=\\
&=\frac{2b^3}{\pi}\int\limits_{-\infty}^{\infty}\left\{\frac{1}{x^2+b^2}\left[-\frac{1}{2}\left(-\frac{2 \left(b^2-3x^2\right)}{\left(b^2+x^2\right)^3}\right)\right.\right.+\\
&+\left.\left.\frac{x^{2p}}{x^2+b^2}\right]\right\}=\\
&=\frac{1}{4b^2}+(-1)^p\frac{b^{2p}}{2}(1-2p)
\label{eq:Eb2}
\end{align}
```

That's some interesting behaviour you observed! You could regard this as kind of a bug in the LaTeX kernel. So what's happening here? There's some vertical space below the display (`\belowdisplayskip`

) *and* after the theorem (the `\thm@postskip`

of `2cm`

that you specified). Now LaTeX is designed such that it doesn't add the *sum* but the *larger one* of those two vertical spaces (which is good).

The problem arises in how the larger of the spaces is chosen. This is done in LaTeX's `\@xaddvskip`

, which only compares the "natural length" components of the spaces, but not the available stretch and shrink. In your case, `\belowdisplayskip`

is `4.19998pt plus 4.19998pt`

and `\thm@postskip`

is `56.9055pt`

. Usually the latter is larger, but you have a situation where the space is stretched about 128 times more than generally permitted (which is why you get an `Underfull \vbox`

warning!). Therefore, `\belowdisplayskip`

is actually the larger of the two spaces, but `\@xaddvskip`

adds only the smaller `\thm@postskip`

of `2cm`

below the display.

In my opinion, a good solution is to work with the *maximum* of the two vertical spaces, in the following sense: use the maximum of the natural and stretch components, and the minimum of the shrink components. I've implemented an appropriate modification of `\@xaddvskip`

in the code below. In the left you see the output of your code, in the right the output produced with the modified `\@xaddvskip`

:

You can see that in the improved (right) version there's a bit more space below the equation than above. The reason is that above the equation `\abovedisplayskip`

is used (`4.19998pt plus 4.19998pt`

), and below the maximum of `\belowdisplayskip`

and `\thm@postskip`

, which amounts to `56.9055pt plus 4.19998pt`

, so about `52.7pt`

more than above. And that's good, since you wanted additional space below the theorem!

Note that the following code is just a proof of concept, it doesn't work as it should if infinite stretch or shrink components are involved.

```
\documentclass[a4paper]{amsart}
\makeatletter
\def\@xaddvskip{%
\ifdim\lastskip<\@tempskipb
\edef\last@stretch{\the\gluestretch\lastskip}
\edef\last@shrink{\the\glueshrink\lastskip}
\edef\next@stretch{\the\gluestretch\@tempskipb}
\edef\next@shrink{\the\glueshrink\@tempskipb}
\vskip-\lastskip
\dimen@=\@tempskipb
\vskip\dimen@ plus
\ifdim \last@stretch > \next@stretch
\last@stretch
\else
\next@stretch
\fi
minus
\ifdim \last@shrink < \next@shrink
\last@shrink
\else
\next@shrink
\fi
\else
\ifdim\@tempskipb<\z@
\ifdim\lastskip<\z@
\else
\advance\@tempskipb\lastskip
\vskip-\lastskip
\vskip \@tempskipb
\fi
\fi
\fi}
\makeatother
\usepackage{amsthm}
\newtheoremstyle{myplain} {2cm}% ⟨Space above⟩
{2cm}% ⟨Space below⟩
{\itshape}% ⟨Body font⟩
{}% ⟨Indent amount⟩
{\bfseries}% ⟨Theorem head font⟩
{.}% ⟨Punctuation after theorem head⟩
{.5em}% ⟨Space after theorem head⟩2
{}% ⟨Theorem head spec (can be left empty, meaning ‘normal’)⟩
\theoremstyle{myplain}
\newtheorem{theorem}{Theorem}
\begin{document}
\begin{theorem}
It holds
\begin{equation}
2+2=4
\end{equation}
\end{theorem}
\begin{proof}
Straightforward.
\end{proof}
\bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip
\bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip
\bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip
\bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip
\bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip
\bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip
\bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip
\bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip \bigskip
\begin{gather}
2\\
2\\
2\\
\end{gather}
\end{document}
```

Just for completeness, here's my original e-TeX-free implementation of `\getstretch`

and `\getshrink`

:

```
\begingroup
\catcode`P=12
\catcode`L=12
\catcode`U=12
\catcode`S=12
\catcode`M=12
\catcode`I=12
\catcode`N=12
\catcode`T=12
\lowercase{
\def\x{%
\def\getstretch##1{\expandafter\get@stretch\the##1PLUS 0PT\endmarker}
\def\get@stretch##1PLUS##2PT##3\endmarker{##2}
\def\getshrink##1{\expandafter\get@shrink\the##1MINUS 0PT\endmarker}
\def\get@shrink##1MINUS##2PT##3\endmarker{##2}
}}
\expandafter\endgroup\x
```

## Best Answer

It may just be that you're using the environment incorrectly. This might be what you're after:

`amsmath`

provides the`align`

(numbered) environment, as well as`\binom`

. Numerator and denominator of fractions in display math mode are normally converted to`\textstyle`

. Therefore, it requires a verbatim switch to`\displaystyle`

if needed.