[Tex/LaTex] Making a table for Maxwell’s Equations

tables

I would like to write this in LaTeX. I tried using the array environment but I think I should use the tabular environment. The problem is the text is outside the margins of the paper. How can I fix this?

Here is my code.

\documentclass[11pt]{article}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\usepackage{esvect}
\usepackage{physics}
\usepackage{units}
\begin{document}
\textbf{\begin{center}
{\Large MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS}
\end{center}}

Maxwell’s equations summarize electromagnetism and form its foundation,
including optics.
\bigskip

\begin{tabular}[l]{l l l}
Gauss’ law for electricity & $\oint \overrightarrow{E}\cdot d\overrightarrow{\! A}=\frac{q_\textrm{enc}}{\varepsilon_0}$ & Relates net electric flux to net enclosed electric charge\\
Gauss’ law for magnetism & $\oint \overrightarrow{B}\cdot d\overrightarrow{\! A}=0$ & Relates net magnetic flux to net enclosed magnetic charge\\
Faraday’s law & $\oint \overrightarrow{E}\cdot d\overrightarrow{\! s}=\frac{d\Phi_B}{dt}$ & Relates induced electric field to changing magnetic flux\\
Ampere – Maxwell law & $\oint \overrightarrow{B}\cdot d\overrightarrow{\! s}=\mu_0\varepsilon_0\frac{d\Phi_E}{dt}+\mu_0i_\textrm{enc}$ & Relates induced magnetic field to changing electric flux 
and to current\\
\end{tabular}
\end{document}

I also would like to know how to make the equations to be in display mode. When I entered the $$ sign, there's an error message. I am relatively new to LaTeX.

Thanks.

Best Answer

It's difficult to fit such big objects in a table without making line breaks.

Here's my suggestion: the laws' names on a line by themselves, in italic type; then the mathematical law and its description.

Some spacing between rows will help in dividing the four parts. With tabularx the second column takes all the space left free by the first column. With >{$\displaystyle}l<{$} the first column is typeset flush left, in display style like when in displays (don't use $$ in general, but the proper environments).

Finally, I added a command for the differential; since it may happen that you're required to make the “d” upright, it's better having it in the code as a command, so you can just change the definition.

\documentclass[11pt]{article}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\usepackage{booktabs,array,tabularx}
\usepackage{esvect}

\newcommand{\diff}{\mathop{}\!d}

\begin{document}
\begin{center}\bfseries\Large
MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS
\end{center}

Maxwell’s equations summarize electromagnetism and form its foundation,
including optics.
\bigskip

\noindent
\begin{tabularx}{\textwidth}{@{} >{$\displaystyle}l<{$} X @{}}
\multicolumn{2}{@{}l@{}}{\itshape Gauss’ law for electricity} \\
\addlinespace[2pt]
  \oint \vec{E}\cdot \diff\vec{A}=
    \frac{q_{\mathrm{enc}}}{\varepsilon_0} &
  Relates net electric flux to net enclosed electric charge\\

\addlinespace

\multicolumn{2}{@{}l@{}}{\itshape Gauss’ law for magnetism} \\
\addlinespace[2pt]
  \oint \vec{B}\cdot \diff\vec{A}=0 &
  Relates net magnetic flux to net enclosed magnetic charge\\

\addlinespace

\multicolumn{2}{@{}l@{}}{\itshape Faraday’s law} \\
\addlinespace[2pt]
  \oint \vec{E}\cdot \diff\vec{s}=
    -\frac{\diff\Phi_B}{\diff t} &
  Relates induced electric field to changing magnetic flux\\

\addlinespace

\multicolumn{2}{@{}l@{}}{\itshape Ampère--Maxwell law} \\
\addlinespace[2pt]
  \oint \vec{B}\cdot d\vec{s}=
    \mu_0\varepsilon_0\frac{\diff\Phi_E}{\diff t}+\mu_0i_{\mathrm{enc}} &
   Relates induced magnetic field to changing electric flux and to current\\
\end{tabularx}

\end{document}

Instead of \overrightarrow that adds a too big arrow, it's better to use \vec or make the vector's symbols bold.

Note also that _\textrm{enc} and similar only works by chance. It should better be _{\mathrm{enc}}.

A stylistic remark: you want to center something which is large in size and boldface, not to boldface something that's centered.

enter image description here

If you also do \usepackage{bm} and add

\renewcommand{\vec}[1]{\bm{#1}}

the output would become

enter image description here

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