I am getting the following error message when I run my code:

! Missing } inserted. }

l.116 \end{thebibliography}

I have read previous questions like this on here which say the error is in my bibliography and not main code but I cannot find a missing bracket in my bibliography or anything else which could be causing the issue before line 116.

Here is my bibliography; (I have put < line 116> to show you where this is, please note this is not apart of my actual code)

```
@ARTICLE{FossKorshunovZachary2013,
AUTHOR = {S. Foss and D. Korshunov and S. Zachary},
TITLE = {Heavy-tailed and long-tailed distributions},
BOOKTITLE = {An Introduction to Heavy-Tailed and Subexponential
Distributions},
PAGES = {7--42},
YEAR = {2013},
PUBLISHER = {Springer}}
@misc{ParetoDist2011,
TITLE = {The Pareto Distribution},
YEAR = {2011},
HOWPUBLISHED =
{url{https://statisticalmodeling.wordpress.com/2011/06/25/the-mean-excess-
loss-function}},
LAST EDITED = {23 June 2011},
NOTE = {"[Online; accessed 30 August 2017]"}}
@ARTICLE{Rojas-NandayapaXie2017,
AUTHOR = {L. Rojas-Nandayapa and W. Xie},
TITLE = {Asympotoic tail behavior of phase-type scale mixture
distributions},
YEAR = {2017},
PAGES = {1--6},
JOURNAL = {Annals of Actuarial Science},
PUBLISHER = {Cambridge University Press}}
@BOOK{BuchholzKriegeFelko2014,
AUTHOR = {P. Buchholz, J. Kriege, I. Felko},
TITLE = {Phase-Type Distributions},
PUBLISHER = {Springer},
YEAR = {2014},
PAGES = {5--10, 125--128}}
@ARTICLE{BladtNandayapapa2017,
AUTHOR = {M. Bladt and L. Nandayapapa},
TITLE = {Fitting Phase-type Mixtures to Heavy-tailed Data and
Distriutions},
YEAR = {2017},
JOURNAL = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1705.04357},
PAGES = {1--11}}
@article{AhmSoohanKimJosephRamaswani2012,
AUTHOR = {Ahn, Soohan and H.T. Kim, Joseph and Ramaswami, V},
TITLE = {A New Class of Models for Heavy Tailed Distributions in
Finance and Insurance Risk},
YEAR = {2012},
MONTH = {07},
VOLUME = {51},
BOOKTITLE = {Insurance: Mathematics and Economics}}
@misc{wikipedia2017,
AUTHOR = {Wikipedia®},
TITLE = {Heavy-tailed distribution},
HOWPUBLISHED = {url{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heavy-
tailed_distribution}},
LAST EDITED = {10 June 2017},
NOTE = {"[Online; accessed 10 June 2017]"}}
@misc{Zheng,
AURTHOR = {S. Zheng},
TITLE = {Sufficient Statistics and Exponential Family Lecturer},
YEAR = {n.d},
HOWPUBLISHED =
{url{http://people.missouristate.edu/songfengzheng/Teaching/MTH541/Lecture\%20no
tes/Sufficient.pdf}},
NOTE = {"[Online; accessed 31 June 2017]"}}
@misc{Clapham2016,
AURTHOR = {M.E. Clapham},
TITLE = {Maximum likelihood estimation},
YEAR = {2016},
HOWPUBLISHED = {url{https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2vh98ful3_M}},
LAST EDITED = {05 March 2016},
NOTE = {"[Online; accessed 01 August 2017]"}}
@misc{Andale2015,
AURTHOR = {Andale},
TITLE = {Pareto Distribution Definition},
YEAR = {2015},
HOWPUBLISHED = {url{http://www.statisticshowto.com/pareto-distribution}},
LAST EDITED = {06 May 2015},
NOTE = {"[Online; accessed 22 July 2017]"}}
@phdthesis{Vatamidou2015,
AUTHOR = {Vatamidou, Eleni},
TITLE = {Error analysis of structured Markov chains},
YEAR = {2015},
SCHOOL = {Technische Universiteit Eindhoven}}
@article{AsmussenNermanOlsson1996,
AUTHOR = {S. Asmussen and O. Nerman and M. Olsson},
TITLE = {Fitting Phase-Type Distributions via the EM Algorithm},
YEAR = {1996},
ISSN = {03036898, 14679469},
URL = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/4616418},
JOURNAL = {Scandinavian Journal of Statistics},
NUMBER = {4},
PAGES = {419--441},
PUBLISHER = {Board of the Foundation of the Scandinavian Journal of
Statistics, Wiley},
VOLUME = {23}}
@inproceedings{TaoRojasTaimre2016,
AUTHOR = {H. Yao and L. Rojas-Nandayapa, and T. Taimre},
TITLE = {Estimating tail probabilities of random sums of infinite
mixtures of phase-type distributions},
YEAR = {2016},
BOOKTITLE = {Proceedings of the 2016 Winter Simulation Conference},
PAGES = {347--358},
ORGANISATION = {IEEE Press}}
@article{AsmussenNermanOlsson1996,
AUTHOR = {Figueiredo, Mario AT},
TITLE = {Lecture Notes on the EM Algorithm},
YEAR = {2004},
JOURNAL={URL{http://www.stat.duke.edu/courses/Spring06/sta376/Support/EM/EM.Mixtures.}},
PUBLISHER = {Citeseer}}
@article{Breuer2014,
AUTHOR = {Breuer, Lothar},
TITLE = {Introduction to stochastic processes},
YEAR = {2014},
JOURNAL = {Lecture Notes, Univ. Kent}}
@phdthesis{Esparza2010,
<LINE 116> AUTHOR = {Esparza, Luz Judith R and Nielsen, Bo Friis and Bladt,
Mogens},
TITLE = {Maximum likelihood estimation of phase-type distributions},
YEAR = {2010},
SCHOOL = {Technical University of DenmarkDanmarks Tekniske Universitet,
Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer
ScienceInstitut for Matematik og Computer Science}}
@article{Brazauskas2016,
AUTHOR = {V. Brazauskas and A. Kleefeld},
TITLE = {Modeling severity and measuring tail risk of Norwegian fire
claims},
YEAR = {2016},
JOURNAL = {North American Actuarial Journal},
VOLUME = {20},
NUMBER = {1},
PAGES = {1--16},
PUBLISHER = {Taylor \& Francis}}
@article{Dempster1977,
AUTHOR = {Dempster, Arthur P and Laird, Nan M and Rubin, Donald B},
TITLE = {Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM
algorithm},
YEAR = {1977},
JOURNAL = {Journal of the royal statistical society. Series B
(methodological)},
PAGES = {1--38},
PUBLISHER = {JSTOR}}
@article{Borman2004,
AUTHOR = {Borman, Sean},
TITLE = {The expectation maximization algorithm - a short tutorial},
YEAR = {2004},
JOURNAL = {Submitted for publication},
PAGES = {1--9}}
@misc{wikipediaPowerLaw2017,
AUTHOR = {Wikipedia®},
TITLE = {Power Law},
HOWPUBLISHED = {url{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_law}},
LAST EDITED = {12 July 2017},
NOTE = {"[Online; accessed 12 July 2017]"}}
@book{Embrechts2013,
AUTHOR = {Embrechts, Paul and Kluppelberg, Claudia and Mikosch,
Thomas},
TITLE = {Modelling extremal events: for insurance and finance},
YEAR = {2013},
VOLUME = {33},
PUBLISHER = {Springer Science \& Business Media}}
@misc{Mean2011,
TITLE = {The mean excess loss function},
YEAR = {2011},
HOWPUBLISHED =
{url{https://statisticalmodeling.wordpress.com/2011/06/25/the-mean-excess-
loss-function/}},
LAST EDITED = {25 June 2011},
NOTE = {"[Online; accessed 30 August 2017]"}}
@article{Genccay2001,
TITLE = {EVIM: A software package for extreme value analysis in
MATLAB},
AUTHOR = {Genccay, Ramazan and Selccuk, Faruk and Ulugulyagci,
Abdurrahman},
JOURNAL = {Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics \& Econometrics},
VOLUMN = {5},
NUMBER = {3},
YEAR = {2001}}
@article{Mcneil1997,
title={Estimating the tails of loss severity distributions using
extreme
value theory},
author={McNeil, Alexander J},
journal={ASTIN Bulletin: The Journal of the IAA},
volume={27},
number={1},
pages={117--137},
year={1997},
publisher={Cambridge University Press}}
```

## Best Answer

Well, you have several mistakes in your given bib code. Let us look to bib entry

`ParetoDist2011`

. The corrected version is:You missed an

`\`

before`url{`

, the blank in`LAST EDITED`

results in an error message (`missing =`

). In other entrys you masked in urls`%`

with`\%`

. After loading package`url`

or`hyperref`

that is not longer needed ...The following MWE compiles without errors and only one warning (okay, commes from used package

`filecontents`

to keep bib file and TeX code together in one MWE):with the first pdf page:

Please change the used

`\bibliographystyle`

to that one you use. That could result in other errors ...