When proving the Galilean invariance of Newton's laws is it tacitly assumed that all equations are covariant, i.e. that they are *form invariant*?

For example, it is fairly trivial to show that the *right-hand side* of Newton's 2nd law is invariant under Galilean transformations. That is $$m\mathbf{a}=m\mathbf{a}'$$ however, does one simply assume that the relationship $\mathbf{F}=m\mathbf{a}$ holds in both inertial frames? It seems reasonable to assume that a given force acting on a body shouldn't change depending on the frame of reference, i.e. that $\mathbf{F}=\mathbf{F}'$, since physical laws should be observer independent and hence the equations describing them should also be observer independent.

As for other quantities, such as momentum and kinetic energy, these are clearly not Galilean invariant quantities, yet their equations are covariant, i.e. $\mathbf{p}=m\mathbf{v}\rightarrow\mathbf{p}'=m\mathbf{v}'$ and $E_{k}=\frac{1}{2}m\mathbf{v}^{2}\rightarrow E'_{k}=\frac{1}{2}m\mathbf{v}'^{2}$, but in each case $\mathbf{p}'\neq\mathbf{p}$ and $E_{k}'=E_{k}$. In this case is it simply that momentum and kinetic energy are simply **defined** by the equations $\mathbf{p}=m\mathbf{v}$ and $E_{k}=\frac{1}{2}m\mathbf{v}^{2}$, and so trivially $\mathbf{p}'=m\mathbf{v}'$ and $E'_{k}=\frac{1}{2}m\mathbf{v}'^{2}$?

## Best Answer

Galilean relativity is usually discussed in the context of Newtonian mechanics. The dynamics is governed by Newton's laws. Galilean relativity concerns kinematics and it says that the dynamical laws are

covariantwith respect to Galilean transformations. In other words, theirformis invariant. You got that right.Maybe it would be useful to look at it from a more abstract mathematical point of view. In the Galilean worldview, spacetime is a 4-dimensional affine space $A^4$. Affine basically means that all the points are the same and you have to pick some point if you want to work in $\mathbb{R} \times \mathbb{R^3}$.

This is just saying that you have to pick the origin for your coordinate system in 3-dimensional space and some moment $t=0$ as the origin in time.

Next, you define your metrics because you want to be able to measure stuff. Spatial distance between two points in $\mathbb{R \times R^3}$ is defined as $$d(\mathbf{x}, \mathbf{y}) = \sqrt{\sum_{n=1}^{3} \left( y_n - x_n \right)^2}$$

Distance in time, i.e. the time interval is defined as $$\tau(\mathbf{x}, \mathbf{y}) = \left| y_0 - x_0 \right|$$ where the 0th component stand for time.

In this picture,

Newton's 1st lawsimply means that inertial reference frames form an equivalence class of coordinate systems in $A^4$ with origins moving with constant velocity with respect to each other. More precisely, in an inertial reference frame, the distance to the origin of every other inertial reference frame is a linear function of time.Newton's 2nd lawtells us that any motion that isn't governed by a function linear in time, must have its motion determined by aforce, a quantity (in general, a function of space and time) which must be proportional to the rate at which the body changes its velocity. The constant of proportionality is what we callmass.Newton's 3rd lawis of less relevance here, but let's just state it for the sake of completeness. It says that when one body is acting on another with some force, the second body is acting on the first in such a way that when added vectorially, the forces sum to zero.Note how all these laws are

in essencecoordinate-free, you can understand them without having to imagine a coordinate system, because they talk about concepts which are invariant when your space has the Galilean structure. When writing down the equations, you have to introduce coordinates at some point if you want to get out some numbers out of the calculation, but the coordinates are simply atool, something that's very common in mathematics, because we know how to work with numbers and how to do simple algebra and calculus.To conclude, whenever you have Galileo-

invariantquantities such asaccelerationorforce, those terms should stay exactly the same in all coordinate systems. These quantities depend only on the Galilean structure of spacetime.On the other hand, Galileo-

covariantquantities such asvelocityandpositionwill change, but in accordance with Galilean transformations. These quantities depend on your choice of coordinate systems and are not defined on $A^4$.