# Multiple Regression – How to Understand Polynomial and Least Squares Regression

least squaresmultiple regressionpolynomialregression coefficientsscikit learn

I have a dataset of 2 variables (called x with shape n x 2 values of x1 and x2) and 1 output (called y). I am having trouble understanding how to calculate predicted output values from the polynomial features as well as weights. My understanding is that y = Xw, where X are the polynomial features and w are the weights.
The polynomial features were generated using PolynomialFeatures from sklearn.preprocessing. The weights were generated from np.linalg.lstsq. Below is a sample code that I created for this.

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
from sklearn.linear_model import LinearRegression
from sklearn.preprocessing import PolynomialFeatures
df = pd.DataFrame()
df['x1'] = [1,2,3,4,5]
df['x2'] = [11,12,13,14,15]
df['y'] = [75,96,136,170,211]

x = np.array([df['x1'],df['x2']]).T
y = np.array(df['y']).reshape(-1,1)

poly = PolynomialFeatures(interaction_only=False, include_bias=True)
poly_features = poly.fit_transform(x)
print(poly_features)
w = np.linalg.lstsq(x,y)
weight_list = []
for item in w:
if type(item) is np.int32:
weight_list.append(item)
continue
for weight in item:
if type(weight) is np.ndarray:
weight_list.append(weight[0])
continue
weight_list.append(weight)
weight_list

y_pred = np.dot(poly_features, weight_list)
print(y_pred)

regression_model = LinearRegression()
regression_model.fit(x,y)
y_predicted = regression_model.predict(x)
print(y_predicted)


With the y_pred values, they are nowhere near the list of values that I created. Am I using the incorrect inputs for np.linalg.lstsq, is there a lapse in my understanding?

Using the built-in LinearRegression() function, the y_predicted is much closer to my provided y-values. The y_pred is orders of magnitude much higher.

In the lstsq function, the polynomial features that were generated should be the first input, not the x-data that is initially supplied.

Additionally, the first returned output of lstsq are the regression coefficients/weights, which can be accessed by indexing 0.

The corrected code using this explicit linear algebra method of least-squares regression weights/coefficients would be:

w = np.linalg.lstsq(poly_features,y, rcond=None)
y_pred = np.dot(poly_features, w[0])


For the entire correct code (note that this method is actually more accurate for predicted values than the default LinearRegression function):

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
from sklearn.linear_model import LinearRegression
from sklearn.preprocessing import PolynomialFeatures
df = pd.DataFrame()
df['x1'] = [1,2,3,4,5]
df['x2'] = [11,12,13,14,15]
df['y'] = [75,96,136,170,211]

x = np.array([df['x1'],df['x2']]).T
y = np.array(df['y']).reshape(-1,1)

poly = PolynomialFeatures(interaction_only=False, include_bias=True)
poly_features = poly.fit_transform(x)
print(poly_features)
w = np.linalg.lstsq(poly_features,y, rcond=None)
print(w)

y_pred = np.dot(poly_features, w[0])
print(y_pred)

regression_model = LinearRegression()
regression_model.fit(x,y)
y_predicted = regression_model.predict(x)
print(y_predicted)